Purpose of the project and know-how
The well-known hydroelectric plants with their large hydro-storage dams completely control river flow and outflow and therefore have a direct negative impact on river ecosystems and the environment of their adjacent banks. But globally they are used for energy exploitation of river currents. Also, in various places, the need arises for a clean local source of electric power without the conventional gasoline or gas electric generator. A possible source of energy is rivers or lake and sea currents. A small turbine generator is described in US Patent 4746808. The turbine is of the Pelton type, which requires a source of pressurized water. It cannot take advantage of natural water flow.
The importance of using natural, clean, renewable energy is emerging as critical to combating global warming.
Extracting energy to generate electricity from horizontally moving natural water currents is radically different from conventional hydroelectric power generation. In it, water pressure is designed to power a pressure turbine that drives an electric generator. US Patent 6013955 discloses a longitudinal water flow turbine which is mounted in a housing designed to be submerged in a current. The turbine is installed in a pipeline. The turbine block is fitted with a tail stabilizer to keep the unit pointed along the flow. The turbine is mechanically connected to a separate electrical generator. Basically, any kind of turbine devices have at least two disadvantages:
1. They locally reduce the speed of the current, which also reduces the efficiency of the turbines.
2. They create prerequisites for congestion of the surrounding turbine devices, respectively, blocking the operation of the turbine.
The use of horizontal hydrokinetic energy in a traditional water mill or propeller generator requires a water flow of several meters per second and is severely limited by geographic location. But an energy system is known, from the patent document of Austria WO2005078276(A1), for energy conversion kinetic energy of current with large amounts of water in rivers outside navigation channels. The installation has minimum external diameters and covers a maximum flow cross-section. It includes a turbine, with fixed or movable blades, which are optimized to operate in a sheet steel jacket. This construction is energetically disadvantageous because the jacket itself creates additional resistance to the water rubbing against it and reduces the overall efficiency of the installation. In addition, it is inapplicable in rivers and canals with floating waste, which clogs the turbine in the casing and greatly hinders its rotation, including its complete blocking.
A similar technical solution with a fully submerged longitudinal flow turbine in a diffuser cone is known from US patent document WO2007100639(A2). It has similar disadvantages as discussed above. A similar diffuser is also known from the patent description of the Netherlands WO2007107505(A1). It is calculated for a more efficient operation of the turbine, but no ways of energy accumulation of the temporary surpluses of the electricity generation are provided.
The massive entry of renewable energy sources into the world's energy system requires technical solutions for energy storage in order not to irrevocably lose already produced clean energy that cannot be consumed. The most efficient are reversible energy accumulators, which balance the electrical production at the place of generation, because there are no electrical losses during the transfer of energy. Such technical solutions are best suited for distributed electrical networks with centralized intelligent management. But they are also applicable for local management, including automated with the help of artificial intelligence. From US patent document US2014138954(A1) a system of hydrokinetic turbines for application of multiple slow water currents is known. But there are no ways of compacting this system with other renewable energy sources, nor local energy storage. Therefore, such systems are not sufficiently cost-effective and competitive. From another US patent document US2019242361(A1) a submerged turbine in a flowing fluid - for example a water stream - is known for extracting useful energy from the kinetic energy of the fluid. The installation includes: a floating platform with hydro kinetic rotors with fixed blades mounted below it.
The developed innovative energy project envisages a floating platform with hydro kinetic turbines and light-amplified photovoltaics with underwater elastic tanks for energy storage with compressed air. It overcomes the shortcomings of such technical solutions by accumulating excess electricity generated by light-enhanced photovoltaics and by hydrokinetic turbogenerators, by compressing air in underwater elastic tanks, whose potential energy is periodically used for secondary electricity generation when electricity consumption is needed.